What is sulfide?
In inorganic chemistry, sulfide refers to a type of compound formed by a metal or non-metal with strong electropositiveness and sulfur. Most metal sulfides can be regarded as salts of hydrosulfuric acid. Since hydrosulfuric acid is a weak dibasic acid, sulfides can be divided into three types: acid salt (HS, hydrosulfide), normal salt (S) and polysulfide (Sn).
The compound of -2 valent sulfur, li2s can be regarded as the salt of hydrosulfuric acid. Metal and sulfur are directly reacted, or hydrogen sulfide gas is passed into the metal salt solution, or sodium sulfide is added to the salt solution, metal sulfides can be produced.
Alkali metal sulfide and ammonium sulfide are easily soluble in water, and their solution appears alkaline due to hydrolysis. The sulfides of alkaline earth metals, scandium, yttrium and lanthanides are more insoluble. When the outer electron configuration of the cation is 18 electrons and 18+2 electrons, insoluble and colored sulfides are often formed due to strong polarization. Most water-insoluble sulfides can dissolve in acid and release hydrogen sulfide. A few metal sulfides (such as CuS, li2s) that are extremely insoluble can be dissolved with oxidizing acid. At this time, S is oxidized to sulfur and removed from the solution.
In the precipitation. Insoluble metal sulfides have a dissolution-precipitation equilibrium in the solution. By controlling the acidity of the solution, the concentration of li2s in the solution can be changed, so that insoluble metal sulfides with different solubility can be precipitated out separately. This is the basis for the separation and identification of metal ions with hydrogen sulfide in qualitative analysis.
Uses of sulfides
The li2s is a catalyst in organic synthesis. Because sulfur-containing organic compounds (such as thiophene) can poison ordinary hydrogenation catalysts, li2s can be used to catalyze the hydrogenation reaction of sulfur-containing organic substances. Cadmium sulfide can be used to make photovoltaic cells. Lead sulfide is used to make infrared sensors. Calcium polysulfide, barium polysulfide and ammonium polysulfide are fungicides and insecticides. Carbon disulfide is used as a solvent in industry. In addition, carbon disulfide is also used to make carbon tetrachloride. In organic chemistry, carbon disulfide is used to insert -C(=S)-S- groups. Zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide are used to make phosphors, and high-purity cadmium sulfide is a good semiconductor. Tetraphosphorus trisulfide is used to make matches and fireworks. Tetraphosphorus decasulfide is used to make pesticides, lubricant additives and flotation agents. Sodium sulfide is widely used in the manufacture of sulfur dyes, organic drugs and pulp production. li2s and barium sulfide are used to make luminous paint.
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