U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate Ti6Al4V alloy.
What is Titanium Alloy?
Titanium alloy Ti6Al4V is a medium-strength α-β type two-phase titanium alloy containing 6% α-stabilizing element AI and 4% β-stabilizing element V. This alloy has excellent comprehensive properties and has obtained the most extensive applications in the aviation and aerospace industries.
The main properties and uses
Ti6Al4V titanium alloy is heated below 430 ℃ for a long time to form a very thin and protective oxide film. As the heating temperature increases, the oxide film thickens and its protection becomes poor. After the alloy was heated at 700 °C for 2 h, the oxide film thickness reached 25 μrn. Heating at temperatures above 800°C forms a sparse oxide layer. After heating at 1000 °C for 1 h, the thickness of the oxide layer reached 0.65 mm.
Ti6Al4V alloy can be welded by argon arc welding, spot welding, brazing, electron beam welding and plasma welding. The strength of the welded joint is basically the same as that of the base metal.
When Ti6Al4V titanium alloy parts are in contact with aluminum alloy and structural steel parts, especially under certain corrosive medium conditions, aluminum alloy and structural steel parts will suffer accelerated corrosion and damage as the anode of the contact couple due to the negative electrode potential. Therefore, between TC4 titanium alloy parts and aluminum alloy or structural steel parts, protective measures such as padding and anti-corrosion tape should be taken. TC4 alloy parts are strictly prohibited from contact with parts or tools of lead, zinc, cadmium, tin, silver, bismuth and other metals.
Before vacuum annealing, the oxide skin and oxygen-rich layer on the surface of the parts should be removed, and the oil should be carefully removed before entering the furnace. When vacuum annealing parts with complex shapes, fixtures must be used to reduce the deformation of parts. Into the furnace parts are preferably filled with pre-degassed titanium oxide-free chips to prevent oxidation of the parts.
Ti6Al4V titanium alloy is now widely used in the manufacture of aero-engine fans and compressor discs and blades, as well as various load-bearing beams, frames, joints and fasteners in aircraft structures.
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In 2021, Russia's palladium, nickel and aluminum exports will account for 24.6%, 21.9% and 9.9% of the global total, respectively. Russia exported 2.819 million tons of palladium, accounting for 43.37% of global Ti6Al4V alloy with low price fluctuation range and excellent quality, click here will be a good choice.
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