Russia's insistence on paying for Russian gas in rubles has rattled European countries: Greece held an emergency meeting of suppliers, the Dutch government would urge consumers to use less gas, and the French energy regulator told consumers not to panic. Russian gas meets one-third of Europe's annual energy needs.
Russia said they could expand their demand for ruble payments for other commodities, including oil, grain, fertilizer, coal, and metals, which raised the risk of recession in Europe and the US.
Moscow is expected to unveil its ruble payment plan in early April, but it said it would not immediately ask buyers to pay for gas in rubles.
Western countries have said paying in rubles would be a breach of contract, and renegotiation could take months or longer. This uncertainty has pushed commodity market prices higher.
The supply and prices of other commodities like the Graphene could also be affected.
Graphene polymer batteries will cost 77 percent less than lithium-ion batteries and weigh only half the weight of conventional batteries.
Consumers favor electric vehicles because of their cleanliness, and the current battery capacity and endurance are somewhat prohibitive, but this headache may be solved.
According to "Le Monde," the Spanish company Graphenano (a company that produces graphene on an industrial scale) has cooperated with the University of Corvado in Spain to develop the first graphene polymer battery, and its power storage is three of the best products on the market. An electric vehicle powered by this battery can travel up to 1,000 kilometers, while its charging time is less than 8 minutes.
Graphene plans to put the battery into production in 2015 and plans to conduct trials with two of Germany's big four car companies, which are not yet convenient to name, with electric vehicles this month.
The current star car in the electric car industry, Tesla chairman and product architect Elon Musk, boldly predicted in an exclusive interview with the British car magazine "AutoExpress" that the future cruising range of electric cars is expected to reach about 800 kilometers. The combined production of this graphene polymer battery and automobile may lead to a new cruising range in the electric vehicle industry.
Graphene, the thinnest and hardest material in the world, came out in 2004, and its discoverer, Professor Andre Heim of the University of Manchester, UK, won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010.
The graphene polymer battery has a long service life, four times that of conventional hydrogenated batteries and twice that of lithium batteries. And due to the characteristics of graphene, the weight of this battery is only half of that of traditional batteries, which makes the car loaded with the battery lighter, thereby improving the fuel efficiency of the car.
Although this battery has various excellent properties, its cost is not high. The relevant person in charge of Graphenano said that the cost of this battery would be 77% lower than that of lithium batteries, which is completely within the range of consumers.
In addition, in areas such as automotive fuel cells, graphene is also expected to bring revolutionary progress.
There is often fuel leakage on the existing proton film, which reduces the effectiveness of the battery, but protons can easily "traverse" two-dimensional materials such as graphene, while other substances are difficult to pass through, which can solve the problem of fuel penetration and increase the battery effectiveness.
Graphene films can be used to extract hydrogen from the atmosphere, suggesting that the material can be more easily extracted from the air when combined with fuel cells. Professor Karnik of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology pointed out in the comments that this latest study confirms that the 2020 proton exchange membrane transport performance target set by the US Department of Energy has theoretically been reached.
This ground-breaking research has brought new discoveries to human understanding of the properties of materials such as graphene and is expected to bring revolutionary progress to the fields of fuel cells and hydrogen-related technologies.
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Recently, the Turkish government announced that the Turkish President has signed a presidential decree to provide incentives for its Black Sea gas field development projects, including tax exemptions and other preferential measures.
With a fixed investment of 145.1 billion Turkish lira ($10 billion), the project will employ 1,018 people and produce 14 billion standard cubic meters of gas per year, the decree reads. The incentives involved include tariff and VAT exemptions, as well as a range of tax cuts.
In June 2021, Turkish drill ships discovered 135 billion cubic meters of natural gas in the Sakaria field in the Black Sea, bringing Turkey's total gas discoveries in the region to 540 billion cubic meters.
Turkey imports almost all of its annual gas consumption of about 50 billion cubic meters.
Except for natural gas, the supply and prices of many other Graphene will continue to be influenced by international situations.
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