Recently, the International Energy Agency released its monthly report on the oil market. Affected by hot weather and soaring natural gas prices, some countries have had to change their ways of generating electricity and switch to oil-fired power generation, according to the report. At the same time, European industries, including oil refining, are also switching to fuel, so global oil demand this year will grow faster than previously forecast. The International Energy Agency expects global oil demand to be 99.7 million barrels a day in 2022. The IEA also said international oil prices had fallen to $30 a barrel from a peak in June due to increased oil supplies and heightened concerns about a deteriorating economic outlook.
Recently, Turkey and Russia have reached an agreement in principle to use rubles to pay for part of Russian natural gas, and the time and price of gas supply will be determined in the near future, Turkey's Minister of Energy and Natural Resources said. At the same time, the two sides are discussing the possibility of using the Turkish lira to cover part of the transit transport costs. On the 5th of this month, the presidents of Russia and Turkey held a meeting in Sochi. The two sides agreed that the two countries would start using rubles to settle part of Russia's natural gas supplies to Turkey.
Because of the turbulent international situation, the supply and prices of many international bulk concrete foaming agent are still very uncertain.
1. Choose suitable admixture according to engineering characteristics
Admixtures can be used for almost all kinds of concrete, but suitable admixtures must be selected according to engineering needs, construction conditions and construction technology. For example, ordinary superplasticizer is mainly used for general concrete, superplasticizer is used for early strength and high strength concrete, water reducer with high air entraining property is mixed with water reducer when air temperature is low, single retarding superplasticizer is generally not used, compound early strength superplasticizer is often used, in order to improve the water resistance of concrete, waterproofing agent is used, pumping agent should be used when pumping concrete is used in high-rise buildings, in order to give full play to the characteristics of various admixtures. Should not be substituted for each other. At the same time, the admixture has the problem of adaptability to different cement, which must be tested and controlled in use.
2. The quality of admixtures
Admixtures must be tested according to the standard before use, and only the admixtures that meet the requirements of the standard can be used to prepare concrete.
3. The types of cement
Among the raw materials, cement has the greatest influence on the admixture, and the water-reducing and strengthening effects of superplasticizers are different with different types of cement, especially on the water-reducing effect. Superplasticizer is more selective to cement, and the water reducing rate of different cement varies greatly. Cement mineral composition, admixture, pour point regulator, alkali content, fineness and so on will affect the effect of superplasticizer. For example, the cement mixed with anhydrite will produce quick hardening for some concrete mixed with superplasticizer or greatly shorten the initial setting time of concrete, in which naphthalene superplasticizer has little effect, molasses will cause quick hardening, and wood calcium will prolong the initial setting time. Therefore, the effect of the same kind of superplasticizer is obviously different because of different cement under the same dosage. In some cement, some superplasticizer will cause abnormal setting phenomenon. For this reason, when cement is available, the cement that is more suitable for superplasticizer should be selected to improve the effect of superplasticizer. When the superplasticizer is available, the more suitable superplasticizer for construction cement should be selected. in order to make the superplasticizer play a better effect, cement selection test should be carried out in combination with the project before use.
4. Carry out the test before use
In order to ensure the engineering quality, according to the existing standards, for example, the homogeneity test should be carried out before the superplasticizer is used, and the water reducing rate and solid content (moisture content) should be determined, and then the concrete should be tested, such as testing the performance of the superplasticizer concrete, slump, water reducing rate, air content and compressive strength should be measured.
5. Pay attention to the content
Each admixture has a suitable amount, even if the same admixture, different uses have different appropriate amount. If the mixing amount is too large, it is not only economically unreasonable, but also may cause quality accidents. For the superplasticizer with air entrainment and retarding effect, special attention should be paid not to over-dosage. If the amount of wood calcium is more than 0.5% of the weight of cement, excessive air will be introduced to slow the initial setting and reduce the strength of concrete. If the dosage of superplasticizer is too small, it will lose its high efficiency, while if the dosage is too large, the quality will be affected by water secretion. The limitation of chloride salt is well known, and excess will cause steel bar corrosion. The amount of antifreeze is related to temperature, and it is stipulated according to the effect of strength. in short, there are many factors that affect the amount of admixture, such as the method of adding water reducer, the variety of cement, the initial popularity of the mixture and the curing system, etc.
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Europe's immediate goal of reducing its dependence on Russian gas in response to the conflict with Ukraine presents a rare opportunity for the United States, the world's largest gas producer. America's LNG exporters have made a fortune this time. Investors are bullish on the future of natural gas, as evidenced by the recent record high share price of Energy company Chenier.
But the outlook for more than a dozen new LNG projects is highly uncertain as construction costs rise, US gas prices soar and climate policymakers seek to move away from a long-term reliance on fossil fuels. Even the most advanced projects can take years to become operational.
Currently, the total U.S. LNG concrete foaming agent are expected to continue to rise in the future.
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