Commodity prices are on track for their biggest rally in more than a century, while fixed-income assets have seen their longest run of outflows as the war in Ukraine adds to inflationary pressures in the global economy emerging from the coronavirus lockdown, according to Bank of America.
"Commodity prices this year are on track to record their biggest gains since 1915." the bank said in its weekly briefing. They cite many factors, such as pandemics, lockdown, civil strife, wars, excessive monetary and fiscal stimulus, and supply chain disruptions, that have led to "historically" high inflation.
By the same token, it said government bonds were heading for their worst year since 1949, and "negative-yielding bonds will quietly disappear" from the market as central banks embark on a monetary tightening cycle and raise interest rates to tame soaring inflation.
The prices of many commodities like the concrete water reducer are expected to increase in the future.
Concrete is a mixture of a graded aggregate, sand, water, and cement. It is necessary to study the influence of concrete components on the effect of the high-efficient superplasticizer in order to give full play to their due effect.
Graded aggregate and sand in concrete can be collectively referred to as sand and stone, which has almost no effect on the efficient water reducing agent. From the action mechanism of the efficient water reducing agent, it can be known that the efficient water reducing agent mainly acts on cement, and then affects the properties of concrete. Therefore, it is an important direction to study the influence of cement on the performance of high-efficient superplasticizers.
The research shows that the properties of cement, such as composition, fineness, and particle shape, have a certain influence on the performance of superplasticizers.
Effect of concrete composition on the performance of high-efficient water reducing agent
It is found in the experiment that the plasticizing effect of slag cement is better than that of ordinary cement when the content of the superplasticizer is constant. Slag cement slag existing in the small particles, in the process of mixing, contributes to high-efficient water reducing agents and a good contact with water, cement, compared with the ordinary cement, slag cement in favor of the circulation of the high-efficient water reducing agent and uniform distribution, more conducive to play a role of the corresponding high-efficient water reducing agent, intuitive performance the plasticizing effect of slag cement is better than that of ordinary cement.
Effect of cement particle size on the action capacity of superplasticizer
It is found that the particle size of cement has a great influence on the performance of superplasticizer. Under the condition of keeping the other technological conditions and components unchanged, the smaller the particle size of cement, the more efficient water reducing agent can play its performance; On the contrary, the bigger the particle size of cement, the worse the plasticizing effect of the efficient water-reducing agent on cement. From the microscopic point of view, the smaller the cement particle size, the more cement particles per unit volume, the larger the specific surface area, and the more full contact with the efficient water reducing agent, the more conducive to the performance of the efficient water reducing agent.
Experimental data show that when the content of superplasticizer is 1%, the fineness of cement is larger, the efficiency of superplasticizer is more fully played, and the fluidity of cement slurry is better. But when the content of superplasticizer is less than 0.3%, the promotion effect of cement fineness on superplasticizer is almost nonexistent.
Effect of cement particle shape on the action ability of superplasticizer
Cement particle shape on the performance of high-efficient water reducing agent role ability is, after mixing cement, cement particles of different shapes, the flocculant produced condensed structure size and difficulty level of each are not identical, cement slurry liquidity difference is bigger, the effect of the high-efficient water reducing agent to join the environment is different, the beneficial effects are different, will affect the ability to function.
The results show that the effect of the superplasticizer is stronger when the cement particle shape is gravel than when the cement particle shape is pebble. It can be understood that when cement particles are mixed at any time, it is easier to form a flocculation structure. The formation of flocculation structure is more stable and the structure is more continuous, which is conducive to the efficient water reducing agent playing its own effect. And the flocculation structure composed of cement particles in the shape of pebbles is easy to collapse, and the continuity of Xuning structure is not high. Even if the efficient water reducer is not added, part of the free water will be divergent and added to the cement slurry mixing, so that the ability of the efficient water reducer cannot be fully played out.
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